Reuse of urine

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This page in under construction. Meanwhile, see the links under references:

Why reuse urine for food production: my summary

  • Motivation for valorising urine
    • stop flushing gold!
      • Energy consumption of water treatment plants, huge investments to maintain sewer system
      • Drinking water to flush toilets: #!!!
    • Same performance as conventional NPK fertiliser
    • Available everywhere
  • Risks and advantages, compared to conventional fertilisers
    • Pathogens: major part removed after storage (high pH, NH4+ Temp)
    • Heavy metals: less than in chemical fertilisers and in animal manure
    • Micropollutants (pharmaceutical): yes, there is some risk: some metabolites of medicine may be taken up partially by some plant parts, it's very variable [ref: see Mendeley]. And apart from exceptions, MP aren't degraded simply in anoxic storage [VUNA publication] But in comparision, there's more antibiotica and other medicine found in animal manure, in average in Europe [ref!]
  • Source-separation and collection

Related projects at Hackuarium


Key resources

[+ other links from sustainable sanitation]

References used

Many many